University of Nairobi School of nursing sciences, Kenya.
Title: Risk Factors Associated with Severity of Nongenetic Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation) among Children Aged 2Ã¢â‚¬â€œ18 Years Attending Kenyatta National Hospital
Mr. Mathieu Nemerimana, MSN, BSN, RN, is a clinical pediatric nurse with master’s degree from the University of Nairobi School of nursing sciences, Kenya.
Background. Many of the nongenetic causal risk factors of intellectual disability (ID) can be prevented if they are identified early. There is paucity on information regarding potential risk factors associated with this condition in Kenya. This study aimed to establish risk factors associated with severity of nongenetic intellectual disability (ID) among children presenting with this condition at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted over the period between March and June 2017 in pediatric and child/youth mental health departments of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Kenya. It included children aged 2–18 years diagnosed with ID without underlying known genetic cause.
Results. Of 97 patients with nongenetic ID, 24% had mild ID, 40% moderate, 23% severe-profound, and 10% unspecified ID. The mean age of children was 5.6 (±3.6) years. Male children were predominant (62%). Three independent factors including “labor complications” [AOR = 9.45, 95% CI = 1.23–113.29, P=0.O36], “admission to neonatal intensive care unit” [AOR = 8.09, 95% CI = 2.11–31.07, P=0.002], and “cerebral palsy” [AOR =21.18, CI = 4.18–107.40, P≤0.001] were significantly associated with increased risk of severe/profound nongenetic ID.
Conclusion. The present study findings suggest that perinatal complications as well as postnatal insults are associated with increased risk of developing severe-profound intellectual disability, implying that this occurrence may be reduced with appropriate antenatal, perinatal, and neonatal healthcare interventions.
Key words: Children, non-genetic Intellectual disability, risk factors, Kenya